NewsBreaking newsEntertainmentMusicWaterboys play LimerickBy Eric Fitzgerald – December 3, 2014 857 Advertisement WhatsApp MIKE Scott and the Waterboys will play Limerick for the first time in over 10 years bringing a show with a new line-up playing in public for the first time. The show promises to reflect every part of the band’s 30 year career. The Waterboys were formed in 1983 by Mike Scott and found their audience with their “Big Music”, powerful live performances and majestic rock albums such as A Pagan Place and This Is The Sea, which included their biggest hit The Whole Of The Moon. After the recruitment of Irish fiddle maestro Steve Wickham, still part of the line-up, the band created their million-selling Fisherman’s Blues album in Ireland on which Scott’s songwriting was merged with traditional Irish music and country. Since then The Waterboys have continued to make records and have matured into one of the finest live acts. The Waterboys’ new album Modern Blues will be released on January 19. The album was recorded in Nashville, produced by Mike Scott and mixed by Bob Clearmountain. Modern Blues is an, “electric, soulful, bold, freewheeling rock’n’roll record with a skinful of killer new songs, some of which have been premiered live over the past few years.” Ralph Salmins, a mainstay on drums for the past four years, appears alongside the talismanic Steve Wickham, who weaves fuzz fiddle spells on several tracks. Fresh to the ranks are Memphis keyboard player “Brother” Paul Brown and David Hood, legendary bassist from Muscle Shoals, Alabama. Additional lead guitars are played by 2013 US Waterboy Jay Barclay and Austin soul guitarist Zach Ernst. Guest backing vocalists include southern soul legend Don Bryant.Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up Modern Blues Track listing:1. Destinies Entwined 5.452. November Tale 5.183. Still A Freak 3.594. I Can See Elvis 5.475. The Girl Who Slept For Scotland 4.566. Rosalind (You Married The Wrong Guy) 5.097. Beautiful Now 3.588. Nearest Thing To Hip 5.429. Long Strange Golden Road 10.23 Linkedin Previous article40 new jobs on the way at Element SixNext articleLeading Armies in aid of Vincent De Paul Christmas Appeal Eric Fitzgeraldhttp://www.limerickpost.ieEric writes for the Entertainment Pages of Limerick Post Newspaper and edits the music blog www.musiclimerick.com where you can watch and listen to music happening in the city and beyond. Facebook Print Email Twitter TAGSwaterboysWhole Of The Moon
Cake company Inter Link Foods has announced it will not now meet market forecasts for the financial year ending 5 May, 2007.The supplier said it will make a loss after exceptional costs, but before goodwill amortisation.However, with internal restructuring complete and the new central distribution arrangements operating effectively, Inter Link said that it expected 2007/8 to be materially better than the current year.
For complete Oakland Raiders coverage follow us on Flipboard.Sizing up the NFL as Week 3 begins:1. Kansas City (2-0)All aboard the Patrick Mahomes bandwagon. Through two games he’s projected for 80 touchdown passes. Last week: 6 Next: 49ers2. L.A. Rams (2-0)Apparently D-coordinator Wade Phillips had no problem blending in some big-named, big ego talent to play together. Last week: 5 Next: L.A. Chargers 3. Jacksonville (2-0)Slot corner DJ Hayden not only had four tackles, but …
What do you get when you cross a polar bear with a grizzly bear? It’s not a joke; look at the BBC News and see. You get bears with mixed shades of fur and a blend of characteristics. Live Science also commented on the BBC report. Scientists have known that these species can hybridize, but the birth of mixed cubs in a German zoo allowed the first-ever study of them. The blending of traits extends from behavior down to the individual hairs. Only one hybrid is known in the wild; a few others have occurred in captivity. The male hybrid appears to be sterile, but scientists are trying to determine if the female hybrid is capable of bearing offspring.Hybrids are common in plants and animals. This is nothing all that unusual. It attracts attention because of the large size of the animals and their distinctive colorations. Creationists commonly believe that most bears are descendants of a single bear “kind” or baramin. That’s not evolution in the sense Darwin used the word (common ancestry of all life by unguided processes of variation and selection). It’s just a sorting out of traits. The sorting persists according to adaptation to the local environment. For instance, thick hair on Alaskan dogs helps them survive the cold winter, even though all domestic dogs are the same species. That kind of “natural selection” is not controversial. The genetic information was already present. Coming up with a dog from bacteria is another issue altogether.(Visited 9 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Photo: Boeing US planemaker Boeing has overcome the engine problems which threatened to derail its 737 MAX delivery schedule to hand over the first plane to launch customer Malindo Air.The B737 MAX 8 was handed over to the Malaysian full-service carrier at the manufacturer’s delivery centre in Seattle On Tuesday.Boeing issued a brief statement on the landmark event which failed to mention engine manufacturing problems that led to the entire Boeing 737 MAX fleet being grounded briefly last week.Malindo is a joint venture involving Indonesia’s Lion Air Group and Malaysia’s National Aerospace and Defence Industries.It began flying in 2013 and has expanded to operate a network of scheduled passenger services throughout Malaysia as well as to regional destinations in Indonesia, Thailand, Bangladesh, India, Singapore, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Australia and Pakistan.The leased plane is in Batik Air Malaysia livery ahead of the airline’s rebranding in the second half of this year. The plan is for Batik Air Malaysia to focus on international routes and provide Indonesian sibling Batik Airways with regional feeder trafficMalindo Air chief executive Chandran Rama Muthy said the airline’s fleet of Boeing 737NGs had served the carrier well and he believed the MAX would become the centrepiece of its fleet.“These new aircraft will allow us to go to further destinations and will play a key role in providing lower air fares to our customers,’’ he said.The engine manufacturing problem at a CFM contractor is seen as a minor glitch in a program that has run remarkably smoothly for the fastest selling passenger jet in Boeing’s history.US Media reports say about 30 LEAP 1B engines have been sent back to manufacturer CFM International for inspections because of concerns a manufacturing defect in a low-pressure turbine disc could lead to cracks.The US Federal Aviation Administration last week cleared aircraft fitted with the unaffected engines and Boeing has since confirmed that the 737 MAX has resumed all flying activities.“Regulatory authorities have granted CFM and Boeing approval to begin the full range of business, test and certification-related flight activities,’’ the manufacturer told AirlineRatings. Boeing has received almost 3700 orders for the latest iterations of its single-aisle workhorse from 87 customers around the world.The debut of the MAX comes after its competitor, The Airbus A320neo, has been in service since early 2016.The 320neo has also had problems with one of its engine options, the Pratt & Whitney Geared Turbofan, although its CFM LEAP-1A engines were unaffected by the problem seen with Boeing’s LEAP-1Bs.
Khulisa works with inmates to facilitate their re-integration into society.(Image: National Digital Repository) Dynamic Khulisa founder Lesley Ann van Selm has won awards for her organisation and in her personal capacity for her uplifting programmes.(Image: Khulisa Social Solutions) MEDIA CONTACTS • Lesley Ann van Selm MD, Khulisa Social Solutions +27 11 788 8237 or +27 82 601 2299 RELATED ARTICLES • SA marks first steps to democracy • Mandela prison anniversary marked • Values, heritage can be learned here • Concourt art tells SA’s story • SA’s gallows now instrument of healing Lucille DavieKhulisa means “to nurture” in Zulu. And plenty of nurturing has been going on across the country over the past 16 years in Khulisa Social Solutions, a multi-layered intervention and upliftment programme with the slogan Reinventing lives.“We work with a variety of role-players including corporations, NGOs and the government to co-ordinate and facilitate projects that engage poverty alleviation, crime reduction, victim empowerment, enterprise development and community upliftment,” indicates the website.Founder and MD Lesley Ann van Selm established the NGO in 1997 and today it has 31 offices nationwide, employing 250. It works in 100 rural areas, and has reached 493 046 people through its multiple programmes in the past year.Khulisa has won and been shortlisted for numerous social awards, including the Silver Impumelelo Award in 2007; the National Reintegration Award from the South African National Institute for Crime Prevention and the Reintegration of Offenders in 2000; and in 2006, the Gauteng Service Provider of the Year Award from the Department of Correctional Services.Khulisa has also set up shop in the UK, where it went originally to create a base from which to access funding, but the organisation’s Silence the Violence programme was identified as something that didn’t exist in that country. Khulisa is now an independent entity in the UK, and has been operating as such since 2008. Inspired to make a differenceVan Selm, who has a marketing and public relations background, has personally won the 2010 Shoprite Checkers Woman of the Year award in the Good Neighbour Category and the 2009 Pinnacle Award as a leading social entrepreneur in Southern Africa. She was shortlisted for the 2012 Annual Reconciliation Award from the Institute for Justice and Reconciliation.In 2001 she was elected an Ashoka Fellow, a prestigious accolade. Ashoka is a global organisation that supports leading social entrepreneurs, individuals who are making a large-scale impact on society.In the troubled 1980s Van Selm worked as an entrepreneur in the townships, but in 1986 she went bankrupt. She says of the experience: “I think this is a lesson that every entrepreneur needs to go through because it gives you a gut feeling about things that you never lose.”After dabbling in advertising, educational television programmes and films, she became involved in storytelling and tied up with the Department of Education in training teachers in the art. This fizzled out but she took the idea to Leeuwkop Prison in north Johannesburg – the concept was to help rehabilitate inmates through storytelling. She says: “That is the day I knew my life would never be the same”.Van Selm was introduced to 20 young inmates, whom she describes as “the most beautiful young people who responded to the opportunity to listen to a story, to tell their story, to participate, to be creative, to be honest about what had happened and they were so hungry and thirsty – they were hopeless because they had never been given a chance to tell their stories or be creative.”She says after running the pilot programme in the prison for a week, “it was unthinkable that we wouldn’t come back”.Van Selm admits to becoming obsessed with her young charges. “The first year I worked with them I came back from my holiday with my entire boot filled with Oros bottles and sea water.” She was requested to bring back sea water because of traditional beliefs that it has healing qualities.And so Khulisa was born. Originally called Khulisa Crime Prevention Initiative, it has broadened its scope to wider societal issues, changing its name to Khulisa Social Solutions. Vision and missionKhulisa’s vision is to provide a “safer, healthier and more prosperous South Africa, where all people, especially youth, have access to the information, skills and opportunities they need to contribute to equitable local and national development”.This will be done by addressing “social vulnerabilities and inequalities by providing support and developmental know-how, through key partnerships, for initiatives at a community level that quantifiably demonstrate social impact”, according to the website.Over the past year Khulisa has partnered with 188 entities around the country, including the departments of Justice, Correctional Services, Education, Foreign Affairs, Health, Social Development, Community Safety, Housing and Labour.These departments help fund Khulisa, which is also supported financially by the EU, the Danish, Finnish, American and British governments, the Open Society Foundation, the UN Office on Drugs and Crime, and the US Agency for International Development. Local sponsors are Anglo American, Harmony Gold, Goldfields, BHP Billiton, Liberty Life, Investec Bank, Carlson Wagonlit and DHL, among others.“Our proven, award-winning programmes provide the intellectual, moral and emotional development that is absent in the lives of many. These interventions effectively break the cycle of violence and crime and result in reinvented individuals becoming part of a ‘pay-it-forward’ social enterprise or community development initiative,” indicates the website. Fostering self-relianceKhulisa works through three inter-connected business units that focus on crime prevention and access to justice, community and leadership development, and business skills and enterprise development. “By targeting all three areas, Khulisa reinforces behaviour change, primarily by the youth, with opportunities for self-reliance, sustainability and an improved community environment.”These business units collectively run nine programmes: Offender rehabilitation; Justice and Restoration; Make it Better youth capacity building and development; diversion programmes; Silence the Violence; Speak up/tug of war; social enterprise programmes in schools; training of master trainers; and the puppet project.Once they’ve gone through the Khulisa programmes, graduates who demonstrate aptitude are assisted in setting up their micro enterprises, which are developed in partnership with Khulisa or other NGOs working in those particular fields.Offender rehabilitationOffender rehabilitation has three arms: HIV/Aids peer education, conducted in various prisons around the country; offender rehabilitation; and Gateways offender reintegration.Over the past five years, Khulisa has worked in 60 prisons across the country with its HIV/Aids peer education programme, rolling it out to 5 763 offenders. By June 2012 the programme had been introduced to 11 Southern African Development Community countries, by training psychiatrists, medical doctors, human resource practitioners and prison management officers.Over the past five years only 18% of 287 offenders who have completed the programme have been reincarcerated. The national relapse rate is 85%.Through the Gateways programme, 66 ex-offenders were given job-shadowing opportunities in 2009, with 83% completing it, and 14% employed full-time by the City of Johannesburg. A survey six months later revealed that 81% of 36 respondents either were employed or studying or volunteering. Justice and restoration: The Justice and Restoration programme or JARP is “a holistic and integrated programme that combines Khulisa’s community development, rehabilitation and reintegration programmes with restorative justice, peacemaking and conflict resolution processes”.The programme has dealt mainly with serious, violent crime and targeted incarcerated, pre- and post-release offenders. The recidivism rate in the country is around 80% while Khulisa’s rate is less than 20%.A case study done in Phoenix in Durban between 2007 and 2009 revealed that 2 000 cases were successfully mediated by Khulisa, the National Prosecuting Authority and the justice department, leading to a reduction in the court backlog of up to 50%, with 93% of victims saying they would rather go the alternative justice route.Another case study, done between 2010 and 2012 over six urban, peri-urban and rural sites, saw 88 438 people being reached on the basis of one victim, one perpetrator, with common assault being the most common crime. Across the six sites, 84% of cases were successfully mediated. Make it Better: The Make it Better (MIB) programme aims to skill youth community leaders. Over 13 years 53 MIB programmes were introduced in seven provinces, training more than 600 people. Over a two-year period each MIB group influenced the lives of around 5 000 young children through peer drug and HIV/Aids education, multiple life skills, sports and recreation, and leadership, among others. Diversion programme: This programme aims to divert young adults who have committed petty offences out of the criminal justice system, thereby giving them a second chance. This involves apologising to the victims, and getting involved in community outreach programmes, called Ubuntu in Action.Between 2010 and 2012, of 6 829 children under 18 years across the country who were involved in petty crime, 4 961 or 73% were diverted away from crime. Silence the Violence: Amazing results have been achieved in this programme – from a group of 164 maximum sentence offenders in four correctional facilities, none of them re-offended during a four-year period after participation in the programme. Some 119 became HIV/Aids and Substance Abuse Peer Educators in their correctional facilities, and 23 of them were released and are giving peer education programmes in schools and their communities. Speak up/tug of war programme: The aim of this programme is to reduce alcohol-related problems among young people, thus empowering them to speak up around substance abuse in their schools and communities. It involves a systemic approach in addressing problems, empowering young people, educators and parents in alcohol-related problems in their communities and schools. Social enterprise programmes: These programmes have been conducted in schools. In 2012 17 young people from three Soweto schools who participated in the programme over a six-month period, demonstrated a personal growth of 85%. Training of master trainers: In 2012 over 600 social workers benefited from Khulisa training developed by the organisation for the department of social development’s crime prevention directorate. The overall rating of Khulisa’s service delivery as a result was 85%. Puppet project: Over a six-month period 27 345 children participated and benefited from puppet shows in 66 schools. This resulted in job creation, where NGOs were established that specialise in communication via puppetry. Human rights awareness was raised among children and their parents, which led to “significant referrals to alternative sources”. Receptive to new ideasDr Martin Wright, a respected restorative justice scholar and writer based in the UK, says that while he thinks Khulisa is not perfect, he did form “the impression of a very lively organisation, receptive to new ideas: it makes connections, observing the backgrounds and ramifications of the problems it is trying to tackle; and it has a business-like approach – its board members come from business backgrounds”.Wright was invited to South Africa in November 2011 by Khulisa to exchange experiences over a two-week period.
18 January 2013Brand South Africa is hosting journalists visiting South Africa for the 2013 Africa Cup of Nations (Afcon) this week. The tour kicked off in Durban on Thursday with a visit to the striking Moses Mabhida Stadium, a Fifa World Cup stadium and the venue for five Afcon matches.The visiting journalists represented a mix of sports and business publications from countries including Russia, Zambia, Brazil and Qatar.“The purpose of such tours is to position South Africa in terms of the business of sport. We want to show the legacy left by the Fifa World Cup. We also want to show that South Africa is serious about inter-regional development,” explained Sandile Ngidi of Brand South Africa.Trade destinationThe day began at the Elangeni Hotel, where a number of short talks were presented, highlighting KwaZulu-Natal as a trade destination.Phillip Sithole, the head of KwaZulu-Natal Tourism, said investing in sports events such as the Fifa World Cup had produced an excellent return on investment for the city.“If you look at the benefits we received from the World Cup as well as [UN climate change summit] COP 17 , they now amount to billions of rands,” Sithole said. “Hosting major events also addresses issues around infrastruture; you can’t host major events if you don’t have the infrastructure for them.”The most visible symbol of the infrastructure development for major events in the city of Durban is undoubtedly the Moses Mabhida Stadium with its massive arch, which begins in two pieces on the south side of the stadium before coming together as one, representing the coming together of the South African nation.Stadium tourIt was thus a natural choice to take a tour of the stadium, which was buzzing with activity ahead of Afcon 2013. A guided tour included a visit to the very well equipped and spacious players’ changing rooms and a journey to the top of the arch on the SkyCar. From there, one took in a wonderful panoramic view of the surrounding city.During the morning meeting, the journalists also learnt about the Sharks rugby team, which is based in Durban. Not only is the Sharks one of the most successful brands in KwaZulu-Natal and South Africa, it is also on of South Africa’s top 100 brands, making it a “superbrand”.Sharks’ advertising and match day events manager Novashni Chetty laid out the holistic approach of the franchise to Durban, KwaZulu-Natal and beyond and explained how the players have become an integral part of different communities and helped to uplift them.The Sharks’ reach was emphasised by an anti-bullying campaign that has gone beyond the boundaries of South Africa, and the signing of a deal with United Arab Emirates Rugby for the Sharks to open three academies in Abu Dhabi, Al Ain and Dubai.Trade and InvestmentClaude Pretorius, destination marketing manager of Trade and Investment KwaZulu-Natal, said major events such as the Fifa World Cup and Afcon 2013 were opportunities to create awareness.“Because of the awareness around these big events, it’s an opportunity for us to host our target audience during these events. While they’re here we give them an opportunity to see the existing infrastructure, to see the planned projects, to see what the opportunities are,” Pretorius said.“What is also very important is the amount of international publicity that South Africa gets for free, which would otherwise be very expensive for us,” he added.Durban Container TerminalIn the afternoon, the group also paid a visit to Transnet’s Durban Container Terminal in the Durban Harbour, the busiest port in Africa. The evening featured dinner at the uShaka Marine World theme park.The visit to Durban was day one of a tour for the journalists that will include the opening ceremony and opening matches of Afcon 2013 at the National Stadium in Johannesburg on Saturday.Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SAinfo material
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest While most are worried about getting corn and soybean in during the next few weeks, the same heat is also making alfalfa weevil larvae develop quite quickly.We would expect enough heat units to have been reached in much of the state to see alfalfa weevil munching away. Scouting is essential to maintain a healthy alfalfa stand. Keep in mind too that while your alfalfa may be resistant to potato leaf hopper, it is NOT resistant to alfalfa weevil. As a reminder, alfalfa weevil scouting is accomplished by collecting a series of three 10-stem samples randomly selected from various locations in a field. Place the stem tip down in a bucket. After 10 stems have been collected, the stems should be vigorously shaken in the bucket and the number of larvae in the bucket counted. The shaking will dislodge the late 3rd and 4th instar larvae which cause most of the foliar injury.Close inspection of the stem tips may be needed to detect the early 1st and 2nd instar larvae. The height of the alfalfa should also be recorded at this time. Economic threshold is based on the number of larvae per stem, the size of the larvae and the height of the alfalfa. The detection of one or more large larvae per stem on alfalfa that is 12 inches or less in height indicates a need for rescue treatment. Where alfalfa is between 12 and 16 inches in height, the action threshold should be increased to 2 to 4 larvae per stem depending on the vigor of alfalfa growth. When alfalfa is 16 inches in height and there are more than 4 larvae per stem, early harvest is recommended.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Following Gov. Mike DeWine’s overview of his H2Ohio program, the Ohio Agriculture Conservation Initiative (OACI) announced the framework of its public-private partnership with the DeWine Administration’s H2Ohio initiative to ensure funds are provided to farmers at all levels of conservation and nutrient management implementation.“OACI’s mission is to achieve meaningful improvement of water quality in Ohio, assure the future viability of Ohio agriculture, and build widespread participation of farmers,” said Heather Taylor-Miesle, executive director of the Ohio Environmental Council and co-chair of OACI. “While there is no silver bullet, we believe this unprecedented partnership will bring meaningful change to Ohio’s water quality over time.”OACI will work with the H2Ohio program to ensure funds flow to farmers who demonstrate a commitment to continuous improvement through implementation of science-based practices that contribute toward healthier waterways. This initiative will begin in the Maumee watershed.“We are bringing together diverse stakeholders to improve Ohio’s water quality through measurement, education, and certification of Ohio’s farmers,” said Scott Higgins, CEO of the Ohio Dairy Producers Association and co-chair of OACI. “The support for implementation of on-farm conservation and nutrient management practices that are unique to each farm makes this initiative different from any other. We believe the partnership with H2Ohio will increase the participation by our farmers.”In early 2020 OACI will launch a mobile app for farmers in the Maumee watershed to self-report information about their farm’s soil testing, nutrient application, nutrient placement, on-field management and structural practices, with the number of acres in each category. Participants will be given a score for each category and an aggregated overall score to determine their certification level.Those not meeting the minimum criteria for certification will be given tools to create an action plan to become certified, and will be eligible for H2Ohio funds to support their work. For farmers earning certification, on a whole farm level, H2Ohio funds will be available for continuous improvement in the implementation of conservation and nutrient management practices. The certification program will be administered by the Ohio Federation of Soil and Water Conservation Districts. There will be an independent audit of certification requests.To measure the progress of the certification program, OACI will establish a baseline of current conservation and nutrient management practices taking place on Ohio’s farm fields. This data will be used — in the aggregate to maintain confidentiality — as a measurement of the continuous implementation of science-based best management practices. OACI was created as an innovative, collaborative effort of the agricultural, conservation, environmental and research communities to improve water quality.For more information, visit www.OhioACI.org.
_This podcast series is excerpted from a two-day class called “Building Science Fundamentals” taught by Dr. Joe Lstiburek and Dr. John Straube, of Building Science Corporation._For information on attending a live class, go to BuildingScienceSeminars.comLast week Dr. John covered the common causes of air movement in buildings and touched on the consequences. This week, Dr. John goes into more detail on the issue of air leakage condensation.This two-part podcast series on how air works has been refined into a feature article, called Air leaks Waste Energy and Rot Houses . It is the new ‘Air Barriers’ section of the Green Building Encyclopedia.__________________________________________________Why should we care about relative humidity?So basically if moist air contacts a cool surface condensation will occur. And an air barrier is one way of stopping humid air from getting to cold surfaces, because in any building in cold weather you will have a cold surface. The cladding, the exterior sheathing—and if indoor air can contact that cladding or sheathing, condensation can occur. So what we’re trying to do when we’re installing an air barrier is to prevent that cold surface from being in connection with humid air.So we need to understand a little bit here about water vapor to go a little bit further and quantify this. Water vapor in air has a maximum storage capacity, if you will, depending on temperature. Warm air can store lots of moisture as vapor in the air; cold air can store only very little. And that is summarized in the psychrometric chart. How many people have seen the psychopathic chart? Most people have. Willis Carrier, from Carrier Air Conditioning, invented this in 1904.How to look at air moisture content If you want to understand psychrometrics you only need three lines actually. You need to know that the vertical axis is the moisture content. The units don’t really matter; we can measure them in a whole bunch of ways; but it’s the air moisture content. It’s measured in things like it in ounces of water per cubic yard—very rarely, because that actually has some physical meaning to most humans. Whereas what mechanical engineers like to use, and it’s questionable if they’re even a subset of humanity, they like to use inches of mercury, or grains of moisture per pound of air. So how much is ten grains of moisture? And how much really is a pound of air? Those are completely meaningless physical units to most of us. And so everyone blanks out and doesn’t understand because they’re not given real units. But actually the good news is that you don’t even have to care what the units are—for most of the work. On the bottom I have temperature, which is obviously important, and the third thing that matters is the maximum moisture content that air can have as a function of temperature. As we go from 90 degrees down to 20 degrees, the amount of moisture that can be stored in the air changes by about an order of magnitude—a factor of 10. That’s a big change. So this is like a gas tank that shrinks, as the temperature gets colder. So when it’s hot you can store a lot in this tank, but when it’s cold you can’t store much at all. And if you were to have a large gas tank filled with gas and you shrunk it, eventually, you’d fill up and spill over. And that’s condensation.Now if air is completely saturated, completely full, they call that saturated air. They also have these neat terms that if it’s half full the air is 50% relative humidity. And if it’s one quarter full they call that 25%. And if it’s three quarters full, it’s 75%. Right? So that’s what that means, it’s how full it is. Just 50% relative humidity or 75% relative humidity doesn’t tell me how much moisture’s in the air, it only tells me how close I am to full. So if I want to know what the actual moisture in the air is I need to know both the temperature and the relative humidity. If I put those two pieces together—temperature, relative humidity—then I can go across and figure out how much moisture I have in that air.Living in homes makes them wetterAnother important aspect to understanding this chart is that here’s a typical wintertime condition in Kansas, or in Minneapolis, or in Boston: it’s around freezing outside—30 degrees, 32 degrees; and it’s snowing. And because it’s snowing it means that the relative humidity outdoors is 100%. If you sprinkle water all over the air for a long time, it’s fully saturated. Right? That’s how it works. So if I take that air, and I heat it up and bring it into the building, like I’d like to do on a cold day—heat it up to 72 degrees—the amount of moisture in the air stays exactly the same. All I did was heat it. I didn’t add any moisture; I’m just heating it. But because the storage capacity of the air has increased with temperature, the relative humidity drops. And we can get down to under 25% relative humidity. But, we don’t just leave it there. Most of us do stuff like: breathe; and produce moisture and sweat; some people actually boil cabbage, and spaghetti; and vent their clothes dryers into their homes to save energy; or dry a cord of freshly cut lumber in the basement of their house—which means all that moisture is being dumped in; or grow pharmaceutical plants in one of the bedrooms under lights; and all of that generates moisture. And, therefore, as we add moisture, the relative humidity rises. And the absolute moisture content rises as well. Both relative and absolute humidity move.Why is indoor humidity a problem?Well, it matters in that now as that air leaks out of the building, and it passes thorough the building enclosure, If it sees a surface colder than say 52, 53 degrees in this example, it will reach its full capacity to store moisture, and after that condensation will ensue. And so if the cladding is somewhere around 30 degrees, as well as the outdoor air temperature, the air, if it were to contact the outside sheathing, would drop all of this moisture, that it gained, on the way out, and it would dump it on the cold sheathing surface. So that’s a typical air leakage condensation cycle that we’re trying to avoid. It’s absolutely that straightforward. This, by the way has nothing to do with vapor barriers. It has nothing to do with vapor diffusion. It has to do with a packet of air—one cubic foot of air—that I actually take, and I push it through that hole in the wall, and it gets cool. And as long as it gets cool, it’s going to follow this chart. So how can I avoid it getting cool and condensing? Well one thing is I can shoot it through that hole so fast that it goes outside before it cools down. And then we see fog coming out. That’s what we see when we have a natural gas furnace or something like that. They fire that stuff out and you see this fog forming in the air next to it. Well when you breathe on a cold winter pretty day, you’re producing humid air, and it right away fogs up. If on the other hand, you take your woolen mitts and blow the air slowly into them, it’ll condense on the inside and it’ll be a really yucky stinky mitt, because it will have all my fog in it. Right? So that’s what I used to do to my sisters, I used to blow into their wool en mitts—see I learned that about building science when I was about 6, and I learned the whole air leakage condensation thing.Air conditioning causes condensation on the insideThe same thing happens in reverse in the summertime. Let’s say the outside conditions are 85 degrees and pretty humid—75% relative humidity. If that outdoor air leaks inward until it contacts a surface below about 76 degrees it will condense.So how many of us work in areas where it can be more then 86 degrees and 75% humidity in the summertime? I mean I certainly do in Toronto. Buffalo, Minneapolis—basically the rule is that anything that’s east of the Mississippi you should expect to have a significant number of hours above 75 degrees and 75% relative humidity. And if you’re further south in that zone, you’re not just going to have 500 hours a summer; on the Gulf Coast there are 3000 hours a year. You know, a third of the year is above those conditions. So if you are actually going to have an exhaust fan in one of those hotels Joe described, and build it in Galveston Texas, you’re truly screwed, because all that air leaking in is going to condense on all the air conditioned surfaces it can see. Now hopefully the only air you draw in goes through your air conditioner because then the first cold surfaces it sees are the coils on your air conditioner, and that condenses the moisture off where you have control. But if it leaks in through the wall or through the roof or in that entrance canopy on the hospital, that’s not good.Leaky homes didn’t have this problemNow here’s something that’s important about the cold weather condition. Many times we didn’t have problems with air leakage in cold weather because our buildings were so well ventilated—meaning leaky—that the relative humidity in the home would rarely rise above 25%. So where I grew up, in an old farm house, it was leaky like crazy; we had two wood stoves in it that ventilated the home; it was so dry that my eyeballs would shrivel up and hang by the optic nerves during the whole cold period of the winter.As we have tightened up homes and not provided guaranteed ventilation, the result has been that the relative humidity has gone up. Then the amount of moisture in the air, in absolute terms, and the amount of condensation that can occur is dramatically different. And it’s not just condensation on the exterior sheathing, it’s now condensation on the inside face of the window; it’s now condensation inside the wall, wherever it can find a cold spot. So not having control of your indoor humidity in cold weather is amazingly important to how much condensation you get for how long, and weather or not you get it at all. And very dry interiors have saved us for a long time, allowing us to ignore this problem.Is there air leakage condensation in my home?If air leaks through, you usually can’t see the condensation, unless you’re a forensic engineer like Joe and I, and you go around and cut holes in walls. It can happen in walls, it’s just that we don’t often get to see inside. But we know it happens. But, where you get to see it a lot is in attics, because all you have to do is pop the hatch and see the frost forming on the underside of the OSB or plywood sheathing. And it doesn’t take much of a hole in a humid house to result in the condensation accumulating as frost. And then when the sun comes, warms up this black shingle roof, of course the water all comes out in a couple of hours, and then you have a “roof leak”. Then you call the roofer and he puts on a new roof and it doesn’t fix a damn thing because that wasn’t the problem.