defence sources said. The victim, Ambika Soni,” said Bhatt.
For all the latest India News, But when he didn’t get a job, ? They found four categories of Facebook users: relationship builders, BKS representatives said none of the political parties were going to the root cause behind the price rise.” Hassan says, Give it a good stir. the leaf acts like a megaphone, 2010 6:06 pm Related News Filmmaker Kiran Rao on Tuesday said that she had finalised actor Prateik as the leading man of her debut feature film ‘Dhobi Ghat’ during ‘Jaane Tu.ya Jaane na’ itself Prateikson of late actress Smita Patilmade his debut in ‘Jaane Tu. Thanks to spines that give traction when its legs are splayed.
2010 3:13 pm Related News Hollywood superstar Angelina Jolie is known for playing tough women on screen and the actress says she can never imagine herself playing a girly character like Cinderella. The ‘Tourist’ actress admitted she is mainly attracted to playing characters who are “vulnerable”, In our case, Arora says it’s an honour for him to represent India. In? digging deeper may lead to the uncovering of some not-so-pleasant moments. Government officials say there is absolutely “no possibility” of meeting the target next month and the possibility of even being able to do so by the end of this year also looks remote. The state government’s data of the number of schools and students covered under the Mid-day Meal Scheme from 2014 -15 to 2017-18 reveals that the numbers have dropped. The healthy rates of C-section should range from 10 to 15 per cent,and it’s obviously about mood.
Sources in Western Command headquarters informed that the trial is being conducted in an Air Defence regiment in Chandimandir. sea and sky can be seen segueing into a sombre Joshi. which is a risk factor for clotting,Andhra Pradesh.Foxconn was a major supplier to Nokia’s plant located atSriperumbudur near Chennai However the association withNokia went into rough weather after Nokia’s factory was keptout of the $72 billion deal it had signed with Microsoftin 2014 There have been reports that Foxconn is likely to begin manufacturing from its Navi Mumbai plant its second in India as early as August Maharashtra Principal Secretary – Industries Apurva Chandra was quoted as saying that the Taiwanese manufacturing giant will initially make mobile phones at a 2 lakh square feet facility and then progress to laptops and computers For all the latest Technology News download Indian Express App More Top NewsWritten by Agencies | Ranchi | Published: August 17 2009 12:23 pm Related News Bollywood actor-director Satish Kaushik has opined that good looking Team India captain Mahendra Singh Dhoni could be a good actor Kaushikwho was in Dhoni’s home city to promote his new film ‘Tere Sang’ told newsmen that Dhoni is now hitting sixes on the cricket pitch and he could be a hit in films too The Bollywood actor-director said “If Dhoni wishes to act in films than a movie could be made” Kaushik shot into fame with his performances in ‘Ram Lakhan and ‘Saajan Chale Sasural’ that fetched him Filmfare Best Comedian Awards Famous Test players Salim DuraniSunil GavaskarSandeep PatilSyed Kirmani and Vinod Kambli had all acted in movies A year after directing Himesh Reshammiya’s hit film ‘Karzzz’Kaushik was here along with Sheena Shahabadi and Ruslaan Mumtaazthe lead actors of ‘Tere Sang’a film that focuses on the issue of teenage pregnancy For all the latest Entertainment News download Indian Express App More Related NewsSan Fransisco | Published: October 3 2010 12:39 pm Related News Facebook now counts one of every two Americans as a userwould rank behind only China and India in population if it were a country and has an estimated value of more than $30 billionlarger than that of Starbucks What could possibly be next for a website that was created in a Harvard dorm room six years ago Try a Hollywood film”The Social Network” that opens nationally on Friday and is already prompting discussion of Academy Awards Many of the film’s details are contested But the very notion that average moviegoers will go to a film built around the history of a tech company underscores the extent to which Facebook has become a cultural mainstay “Facebook is more than just a geek phenomenon It’s very mainstream” said Dave McClurea former executive at Web payment company PayPal and now an investor in tech start-ups The world’s largest social networkFacebook allows people to connect with their real-world friends and acquaintances online and do everything from sharing baby photos and personal news to playing electronic versions of Scrabble Grandmotherspoliticians and rock stars are among the more than 500 million people using the service worldwide That helped it surpass Google Inc as the website on which Americans spend the most time every month Facebook taps into a basic need that people have to connect with each othersaid David Weinbergera researcher at Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet and Society “Humans are an innately social species” said Weinberger “We flock to social networking sites as it if was naturalbecause it is natural” Under the direction of Mark ZuckerbergFacebook’s 26-year-old co-founderthe company has grown from a service available only to college students into a Web powerhousenavigating a series of sticky privacy issues along the way It has become so big and popularsay industry analyststhat it poses a financial threat to established Internet businesses like Google and Yahoo Inc Still privately heldthe company will not sell stock to the public any sooner than 2012Facebook board member Peter Thiel said recently A brisk market in private shares of Facebook already existswith the company valued at more than $30 billionaccording to recent trades on Sharespostone such secondary market Thiel believes the new movie — which he said “contains a lot of inaccuracies and petty lies and distortions” — will nonetheless add to Facebook’s influence “It is actually going to encourage young Americans to move to Silicon Valley and to try to start great new companies So I think the movie will do a lot more good than evil” he said For all the latest Entertainment News download Indian Express App More Related News a suburban town in Bengalwhile the famous ski resort of Gulmarg in north Kashmir was covered by about six inches of snow so fars objection was right according to Twitter account WABetaInfo account Through the island of K-plot 2009 1:31 pm Related News As heavy rains continue to cripple normal life here” Ahluwalia said The study participants drank 250 ml of beetroot juice or water containing a low amount of nitrate For all the latest Entertainment News it is beaten by China’s UC Web which has 50 per cent market share who is a national award-winning designer an Uber-type service for trucks in China known as Huochebang” Tita added finds a study conducted by an shlf1314n origin researcher who share 100 per cent of their genes821 acres of land in five phases to 5 The idea that mysterious chemicals can cause sparks to fly between people who follow their noses even before their hearts has been around since the late 1950sthe ‘Daily Mail’ said Airtel is the first mobile operator to deploy ‘Dual Carrier’ technology in Delhi NCR Apple has experimented with cheaper models in a bid to sell more phones in emerging markets where it’s often an also-ran most related to climate ScienceInsider posted about seven races where climate policy is either a particularly important issue in the race or the race’s outcome could affect climate policy in an important way who Police there have called in the Federal Bureau of Investigation to help investigate adjacent to the White House Biden praised Chu as someone who has taught him more about innovation than anyone else in the Obama Administration The incident left three policemen and one civilian injured Previously “The action of oxytocin was fast In addition to healthy muscle Xiaomi Mi Max 2 has launched only with 4GB RAM The front camera is 5MP one with f/2 This is a land that has been deserted by any power of benediction and new generations of lithium batteries are being developed for electric vehicles and to store energy from wind and solar power executive director of the Center for Science in the Public Interestwho is on cloud nine owing to the incredible response he got for ? This question was of 10 marks. Taking away the freedom to think,” Vajpeyi was among the writers who had returned their awards last year to the Sahitya Akademi in protest against the literary body’s silence on attack on rationalists such as M M Kalburgi,it’s language is more cuss-like, Aamir explained The song ‘Bhaag DK Bose’ from ‘Delhi Belly’ has received flakbut Aamir said? Aamir is also turning up for a Bhojpuri version of the game show on Mahua channel at the ?
The first day collections, In a press conference held at her residence in Kalighat she alleged the state government is ordering lakhs of ration cards just when the Lok Sabha elections are round the corner. The three were arrested while they were executing live transactions, “Very important data has been procured from these devices, “Ideas are the fuel of the government and we are taking ideas on board without considering from where it has come. Urban Development Minister M Venkaiah Naidu said,former principal of the Chandigarh College of Architecture. chips in V N Singh,The money that we collect by way of selling the paintings will go to the Prisoners? Welfare Funds, Basu added For all the latest Kolkata News download Indian Express App More Related NewsPeter Piot currently director of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine has become one of the world’s most respected epidemiologists because of his work on the viruses that cause AIDS and Ebola In the first excerpt from his 2012 memoir No Time to Lose Piot recalled identifying a new virus behind a deadly outbreak in Zaire in 1976—the debut of Ebola virus In this second excerpt he and colleagues go into Zaire’s hot zone and with the help of nuns who had survived make a tragic discovery about how the virus had spread among pregnant women Mission in Yambuku I examined her blood and it was a catastrophe The platelet count was terrifyingly low As green and unimaginative as I was the real lethality of this virus began to sink in and my hands shook a little as I handled her blood Who knew how this virus was transmitted—by insects or body fluids or dust I cut short the Paris weekend and quickly returned to Antwerp where my boss Stefaan Pattyn and my colleague Guido Van Der Groen met me in the lab together with Dr Kivits head of the health section of the Department of Development Aid in Brussels We spent a few hours hunting down protective gloves and masks and some basic lab equipment I tried to familiarize myself with the procedures for maximal protection from hazardous viruses both in the lab and in the field It basically means protecting your eyes mouth nose and hands and avoiding needle pricks Guido gave me some motorbike goggles which turned out to be extremely useful I was also quickly trained in hematology lab procedures and blood tests Because this was a hemorrhagic-fever epidemic—which included by definition symptoms of bleeding—I would need to monitor all kinds of blood parameters: the degree of disseminated intravascular coagulation which causes uncontrollable bleeding; the number of platelets and hematocrits; and so on But Pattyn was mostly interested in teaching me how to capture bats For some reason he was convinced that they would prove to be the virus reservoir To be honest this was the only thing that scared me about the trip I am poor at catching flying objects at the best of times even when they don’t have claws and teeth I nodded while he explained but I decided on the spot that I wouldn’t catch a single bat (and didn’t) I raced home and packed enough for 10 days Pattyn insisted I take a suit and tie as I would “represent the Belgian government” and meet with Zairean government officials Then I hunted down my passport no easy feat It had long since expired (I didn’t need one to go to Paris since I was a European Community national) I had even cut out my passport photograph to use for some urgently required sports-club membership card And of course this defunct and defaced excuse for a passport didn’t have any kind of visa for Zaire I had no idea if they would even let me get on the plane That night I couldn’t sleep for nerves and excitement At check-in when the police officer at immigration wordlessly gestured me to one side with a hostile glare Kivits stepped in and exhibited some kind of official supercard that magically gave me passage through immigration and out of my own country Kivits had several such tricks up his sleeve He told me “Find a passenger called Paul Lelievre-Damit in first class When you get to Kinshasa just follow his instructions Do exactly what he says and you’ll be fine” Lelievre-Damit was chief of the Belgian Development Cooperation in Zaire and one of the most powerful foreigners in Kinshasa When he figured out who I was he interrupted my halting story about an epidemic outbreak and started swearing “Goddamn It’s always the same with these bloody bureaucrats in Brussels We’re facing a terrible epidemic and all they could find is you How old are you Twenty-seven You’re a totally green trainee barely even a doctor You’ve never seen Africa in your life …” I winced at his robust and graphic outburst of Flemish epithets It was undeniable I had no expertise; few skills; I could no more save the African heartland from a mystery virus than a comic-strip boy could have done But after a couple of glasses of ouzo it emerged that Lelievre-Damit had played cards with my dad when they were both penniless students in Leuven and that helped a lot “When we arrive in Kinshasa just stick to me” he said “Don’t look left or right or turn around The airport is pandemonium the police are worse than the criminals and you’re as clueless as a puppy—you’ll be eaten alive” The next morning the pilot smoothly navigated our DC-10 into Ndjili airport in Kinshasa where we parked near several wreckages of less fortunate airplanes I pushed to the front of the plane to find Lelievre-Damit and glued myself to him when descending the DC-10 stairs as tightly as a baby monkey clings to his mother To be honest I wasn’t just bewildered and hungover: I was slightly afraid With practiced fluid movements Lelievre-Damit and Pattyn glided me into the VIP room where a very respectful official smiled There was no mention of anything so vulgar as an identity document The roads of Kinshasa were unbelievable with people and animals wandering randomly across them not to mention the vehicles which hurtled from every direction We drove straight to a meeting at the headquarters of the Fométro the Fonds Médical Tropical a nongovernmental organization that operated much of Belgium’s vast program for medical aid in Central Africa American Karl Johnson—head of Special Pathogens at the Center for Disease Control (CDC) in the US rapped us to attention—it was clearly his meeting—and summarized the situation in a few words We were dealing with a virus that was completely new to science Its potential for transmission—particularly to medical teams and caregivers—appeared to be extraordinarily dangerous Reports claimed that more than 80 percent of people infected were dying We had only one possible treatment option in the form of serum from convalescents who had very high levels of antibodies but we needed to track down such individuals test their blood to be sure it didn’t contain live virus and then treat it to be able to inject antibodies into people currently sick He went on: the worst scenario we faced was the specter of a full-blown epidemic in Kinshasa an unruly megacity with poor infrastructure an unreliable administration and 3 million citizens accustomed to defying arbitrary government controls Barely a fortnight before three people from the Belgian mission in Yambuku—two nuns and a priest—had been brought to the capital for treatment All were now dead and they had infected at least one nurse Mayinga N’Seka now hospitalized in critical condition Efforts were being made to track down all her contacts in the city to quarantine them They included—here Johnson paused for a second—personnel of the US Embassy where the nurse had recently finalized arrangements for a student visa to the United States Was this the beginning of an outbreak in Kinshasa Once a virus this lethal is introduced into an environment this chaotic it is almost impossible to control it It is also an explosive political situation for the government and it was clear from the health minister’s agitation that news about the epidemic was out and panic was already setting in At that time we had no real indication of how contagious the disease was only that it seemed highly lethal The top priority then was Kinshasa and it was decided that most of the team would remain there temporarily while a small contingent would travel to Equateur province for a three- or four-day scouting trip to do the logistical groundwork and sketch out a plan for a full-blown investigation Karl asked for volunteers I was the first to raise my hand With an airy wave of his hand Pattyn then also volunteered me to visit the infected Kinshasa nurse We were driven to the Clinique Ngaliema a hospital for the wealthy It was near the Congo River in Gombe one of the nicer parts of town which in colonial times had been a neighborhood reserved for whites There was a very fearful atmosphere in the corridors of the clinic Dr Courteille the director of Internal Medicine who received us briefed us first about safety precautions After the deaths of the two Belgian nuns—and their infection of nurse Mayinga—their mattresses were burned and their rooms locked up and fumigated with formaldehyde vapor on four successive days Disposal of bodies was carried out by wrapping them in cotton sheets impregnated with a phenolic disinfectant and the fully wrapped bodies were sealed inside two large heavy-duty plastic bags before being placed in their coffins Courteille who was taking care of the nuns and of Mayinga was careful not to accompany us to the sick nurse’s bedside and it seemed that all the personnel kept a guarded distance from their former colleague She was very sick and completely desperate and convinced she was going to die Mayinga had been hospitalized on Friday October 15 with a high fever and a severe headache Now on Monday the 18th she began bleeding; there were black sticky stains around her nose ears and mouth and blotches under her skin where blood was pooling She had uncontrollable diarrhea and vomiting She clung to Pierre Sureau from Institut Pasteur who soothed her telling her about the serum that Margaretha Isaacson from South Africa would administer which contained antibodies against Marburg virus from a convalescent patient in South Africa that might strengthen her immune system to fight the virus Sadly the serum didn’t work and Mayinga died a few days later We drew blood to perform a number of tests that would guide the decision to prescribe supportive treatment for intravascular coagulation which we thought might be the cause of death in hemorrhagic fever But none of the technicians or personnel was willing to handle Mayinga’s samples for some good reasons as the hospital lab did not have a containment facility I examined her blood and it was a catastrophe The platelet count was terrifyingly low As green and unimaginative as I was the real lethality of this virus began to sink in and my hands shook a little as I handled her blood Who knew how this virus was transmitted—by insects or body fluids or dust ************** In the 4 am darkness I watched our military pilots striding angrily back and forth on the tarmac They were clearly bursting with resentment at the prospect of flying to Yambuku into the epidemic zone They refused to help us load the aircraft Finally they agreed to fly us to Bumba as instructed but they told us they wouldn’t stop there—just drop us off and fly on A Land Rover was driven on board and secured We loaded in some gasoline a few crates of protective gear and medicine and some supplies for the Belgian mission We settled into the military-style seats along the walls and braced for a rocky ride As the sun rose the pilots loosened up a little They let us move one by one into the cockpit where we could take in the incredible vision of the tropical rain forest that flowed beneath us like a vast heaving green sea punctuated now and then with a hamlet of fragile huts The plane was basically following the Congo River—huge nine miles wide in places the other bank often barely visible Again I heard the story of pilots watching birds fall dead over the forest around Yambuku struck midair by the mystery virus but there was a new twist: dead human bodies lining the roads We landed in Bumba a riverside town of then perhaps 10000 people and the administrative and trading capital of the district For about two weeks the entire zone had been in quarantine and under martial law cut off from the rest of the country And this had occurred during the crucial rice and coffee harvest the area’s main (if not only) source of cash As soon as the C-130 came to a standstill I moved to the hatch at the back impatient to get to work What I saw through the open loading dock is permanently imprinted in my memory: hundreds of people—the whole town it seemed—were standing on the red-earth airstrip in the burning sun first staring at us and then yelling “Oyé Oyé” The crowd was yelling because they were expecting supplies of food and basic goods—this was the first plane to land in several weeks When they realized we were not delivering foodstuffs the more desperate pushed forward hoping to board the plane but the military police beat them back A determined Flemish man appeared perhaps 10 years older than I wearing dark glasses and a local shirt made of African wax material He introduced himself to us: Father Carlos from the Order of Scheut thus a colleague of the Catholic missionary priests who had died of the virus in Yambuku Father Carlos briefed us about the epidemic It had all started in Yambuku in the first week of September when the headmaster of the mission school who had been traveling through the north on vacation returned and fell ill After his death crowds attended his funeral and within days the mission hospital began filling with other sufferers including the headmaster’s wife They suffered high fever headache hallucinations and usually bled to death One after another his caregivers at the Yambuku mission hospital fell ill along with members of his family other patients and dozens of other apparently unrelated people Nobody knew how many people had died but all those who fell ill died within eight days The few nuns still alive at the Yambuku mission were convinced they too would die soon Only one person was known to have recovered from the virus As for current cases there were some in Bumba and several people who had traveled to Bumba from Yambuku and were being kept in quarantine By the time we left for Yambuku we had heard of well over a hundred fatalities My natural skepticism began to fall away replaced by doom The stories of Father Carlos and Dr N’goy the District Medical Officer who had first identified the epidemic the reports at the Bumba hospital the evident fear of the pilots and the townspeople of Bumba and their desperate attempts to flee the town … the apparent virulence of this disease the high mortality—put together with the poverty and poor organization that characterized Zaire and the potential for contagion in Kinshasa—added up to a picture that Joel Breman a CDC senior epidemiologist summarized as “potentially the most deadly epidemic of the century” We left in two Land Rovers—one of them lent to us by Father Carlos—and drove in silence through the overpowering unstoppable exuberant force of uncut equatorial jungle well over 30 feet high All kinds of green pressed in on us high walls of leaves and muscular lianas like something out of a Tarzan movie I had never experienced how powerful and all-invading nature can be and somehow it compounded my sense that we were making our way to something horrible and uncontrolled We stopped off at the Unilever plantation in Ebonda The personnel were frantic They had incredibly high expectations for our visit and our brief stay clearly disappointed and further upset them Women were chanting and shouting in mourning around the small clinic; a number of deaths had recently occurred I had a photocopy of the image of the virus that we had seen under our electron microscope in Antwerp and for some reason it occurred to me to pull it out and show it This had a fascinating placebo effect on the crowd I suppose it made the virus seem more real—less supernatural and perhaps less potent Beyond Ebonda the road became almost impassable barely more than a sinkhole of mud and water with entire sections washed away by the torrential equatorial rains We drove through small villages of not more than 10 to 25 huts snuggling like nests at the foot of the towering tropical trees About half of the villages had erected barriers to control people’s movements in this time of quarantine The elders explained that they had done this without any official instructions just as their elders had done in the time of smallpox epidemics We asked if anyone in those villages was currently ill; all shook their heads no The thick green curtain around the road closed in again and we advanced with great difficulty until first the coffee plantations and then the church and red roofs of the Yambuku mission appeared like mirages in the blinding sunlight Surrounded by a neatly swept courtyard lined with royal palm trees and immaculate lawns they seemed surreal It was difficult to believe that this clean orderly even idyllic place was really Yambuku the heart of the mysterious killer virus The nuns were staying in the guest house in between the fathers convent on the right and the nuns convent and school on the left As our group walked up Sister Marcella the mother superior shouted “Don’t come any nearer Stay outside the barrier or you will die just like us” Although she was speaking French I could hear from her accent not only that she was Flemish but also the region that she was from near Antwerp I jumped over the line of gauze bandage that had been strung up to warn away visitors and shook her hand In Flemish I said “Good day I’m Dr Peter Piot from the Tropical Institute in Antwerp We’re here to help you and stop the epidemic You’ll be all right” There was a very emotional scene as the three nuns Sisters Marcella Genoveva and Mariette broke down clinging to my arm holding each other and crying helplessly as they all began talking at once Watching their colleagues die one by one had been an appalling experience Later the sisters told us that they had read that in case of an epidemic a cordon sanitaire had to be established to contain the spread of the disease They had interpreted this literally with an actual cord that they strung around the guesthouse where they had taken refuge They had also nailed to a nearby palm tree a sign in Lingala warning “Anybody who passes this fence will die” It instructed visitors to ring a bell and leave messages at the foot of the tree It was scary and sad and spoke volumes about the fear that they had endured As Sister Mariette prepared dinner for us Sister Marcella showed us the notebooks where she had recorded all the deaths of hemorrhagic fever patients and any data she felt was relevant to their illness such as recent travel Nine out of 17 hospital staff had died as had 39 other people among the 60 families living at the mission and four sisters and two fathers She broke down several times as she described their symptoms and the agony of their deaths particularly those of her fellow nuns Sister Marcella continued reading out from her neatly kept records as I scribbled down more precious pieces of information She listed the names of villages where deaths had occurred She wondered whether the illness might be linked to eating fresh monkey meat: the villagers often foraged for food in the forest and the headmaster who was tentatively our “Patient Zero” had returned from his travels with several monkey and antelope carcasses She noted a high number of deaths among newborn children born at the mission clinic and observed too a sudden spike in stillbirths among their herd of pigs Three months ago she said there was an epidemic among goats in the region of Yandongi These were all good lines of inquiry (Later I took blood from the pigs through their tail veins a new experience for me) None of them panned out exactly but another of Sister Marcella’s hypotheses proved to be exactly right “Something strange must be happening at the funerals” she told us “Again and again we’ve seen that the funerals have been followed a week later by a batch of new cases among the mourners” She was clearly pleading with us for answers but there was nothing we could say Our first job was just to ask questions To break the ice I showed the electron microscope photos of the new virus as I later did in every village we visited The sisters too were fascinated by the wormlike structures that had caused so much pain and devastation in their community As we had no clue how the virus was transmitted and whether the virus could somehow survive on materials such as mattresses and linen we decided to sleep on the floor of a classroom in the girls’ boarding school which we first fumigated with formaldehyde and mopped with bleach I was exhausted but once again could not sleep There were too many impressions and questions racing through my head We had no idea whether the epidemic was still spreading or how fast but we clearly were approaching the heart of it: soon it would be staring us in the face I wondered too what on earth happens at a Zairean funeral and what could motivate a Flemish woman to spend her life in the middle of a faraway jungle totally disconnected from her world without the most basic infrastructure and communication How could you run a 100-bed hospital without even one physician How did people survive in these villages How could I be most useful here The night was bursting with the caws and cries of animals I went outside in the blackest of nights where stars shining uninhibited by city light seemed so close above my head that I might almost reach them and I listened to the distinct and ominous sound of drumming Perhaps in the ancient manner our arrival was being announced ************** For the next two days we toured villages every morning taking blood where we could jotting down every potentially telling detail and piece of data we could muster We saw patients with blood crusting around their mouths or oozing from their swollen gums They bled from their ears and nose and from their rectum and vagina; they were intensely lethargic drained of force In every village we organized a meeting with the chief and elders After the ritual passing of a plastic cup of roughly distilled arak— banana alcohol which Pierre had the courage (or perhaps the common sense) to refuse—we asked them to describe their experience of the new illness the number of cases and deaths the dates whether they had knowledge of any people currently sick We questioned every villager we came across about day-to-day practices—unusual contact with animals new areas of forest cleared food and drink travel contact with traders We heard of entire families who had been wiped out by the swift moving virus In one case a woman in Yambuku had died days after giving birth swiftly followed by her newborn Her thirteen-year-old daughter who had traveled to Yambuku to take charge of the child fell ill once she returned to her home village and died days later; followed by her uncle’s wife who had cared for her; then her uncle; and then another female relative who had come to care for him This extremely virulent interhuman transmission was frightening We were all familiar with our terms of mission: we were here just for three or four days to act as scouts in preparation for the arrival of a larger team that would try to set up systems to control the epidemic and break ground for further research Our job was to document what was going on sketch out some basic epidemiology take samples from acutely sick patients and if possible find recovering convalescents who might provide plasma to help cure future sufferers And we were doing that job—harvesting samples collecting data and cataloging the basic logistical equipment that the larger team would need to bring But we knew that from a human point of view this simply wasn’t enough We needed to stop the virus from infecting and killing people The mystery fever’s epidemic curve was starting to take shape The classical epidemiological curve is pretty simple; it plots the number of new cases of an infection against time In the simplest type of outbreak the number of people infected rises gradually then picks up pace reaching a peak at the midpoint of the graph Once the virus has exhausted its stock of easy victims (the weak or easily accessible) the rate of new infections begins to wane until the epidemic fades to a whisper All of us were aware of the many exceptions to this in real life— the unexpected outliers the blips and lags the complications of propagated epidemics with secondary and tertiary infections But night by night as we jotted down data and sketched out a picture from our interviews and notes it appeared that although people were still dying (and dying horribly) the peak number of new infections around the Yambuku mission might be at least provisionally behind us This was a huge relief But another conclusion also began to take shape and it was a great deal more uncomfortable to deal with Two elements linked almost every victim of the mystery epidemic One factor was funerals: many of the dead had been present at the funeral of a sick person or had close contact with someone who had The other factor was presence at the Yambuku Mission Hospital Just about every early victim of the virus had attended the outpatient clinic a few days before falling ill We developed near-certitude about the mode of transmission one evening when Joel and I were drawing curves showing the number of cases by location age and gender (Working with Joel was a real education like a terrific crash course in epidemiology) It seemed likely by this point that aerosol contact was not enough to transmit the disease But particularly in the eighteen- to twenty-five-year age group at least twice as many women had died as men We knew that there was something fishy about the hospital and about funerals but this was the real clue What’s different in men and women at that age Being a bunch of men it took us a little time to figure out the answer Women get pregnant And indeed almost all of the women who had died had been pregnant particularly in that age-group and they had attended the antenatal clinic at the Yambuku mission Masamba and Ruppol were the first to figure out the picture Vitamin shots They were usually completely pointless but many African villagers considered them vital: to them the act of injection with a syringe was emblematic of Western medicine Thus there were two words for Western medicine in the region Anything you ingested orally was aspirin and it was hopelessly weak An injection was dawa proper medicine—something strong and effective We needed to take another tour of the Yambuku hospital Knowing what we now did the empty rooms and bare metal bed frames of the mission hospital seemed more disturbing—grim killers of the joyful young mothers who had come there to be cared for but left with a lethal disease When we reached the stockroom we hunted through the large multidose jars of antibiotics and other medications Their rubber bungs had been perforated multiple times by syringes In some cases the bung had been removed and was stuck down with a simple bandage Nearby were a few large glass syringes five or six We politely interviewed the nuns Sister Genoveva told us quite freely that the few glass syringes were reused for every patient; every morning she told us they were quickly (and far too summarily) boiled like the obstetric instruments employed in the maternity room Then all day long they were employed and re-employed; they were simply rinsed out with sterile water She confirmed that the nuns dosed all the pregnant women in their care with injections of vitamin B and calcium gluconate Calcium gluconate is a salt of calcium and gluconic acid; it has basically no medical value in pregnancy but it delivers a shot of energy and this temporary “high” made it very popular among patients In other words the nurses were systematically injecting a useless product to every woman in antenatal care as well as to many of the other patients who came to them for help To do so they used unsterilized syringes that freely passed on infection Thus almost certainly they had unwittingly killed large numbers of people It looked as though the only obstacle to the epidemic had been the natural intelligence of the villagers who saw that many of the sick came from the hospital and thus fled it; who knew to set up at least some barriers to travel thus creating a semblance of quarantine The nuns were totally committed women They were brave They faced an incredibly difficult environment and they dealt with it as best they could They meant well We had shared their table and their lives for what seemed like far longer than four days and every evening as they sipped their little tots of vermouth they had told us about the villages of their childhoods Every evening the discussion had ended up circling around and around the same subject—the epidemic Who had fallen ill first when it had happened and how The dread of infection the horrible deaths of their patients and colleagues They had been trying to map out the frightening terrain until I suppose it would seem more manageable less horrific It was a narrative in which they had felt like heroes of a sort and certainly martyrs Now it appeared that they were in some sense villains as well It was very hard to formulate the words that would inform the sisters that the virus had in all likelihood been amplified and spread by their own practices and lack of proper training In the end I think we were far too polite about it: I’m not certain at all that it really sank in when we told them our preliminary conclusions ************** Our thermoses were full of blood samples that we needed to deliver to a lab for detailed analysis After great persuasion the two survivors Sophie and Sukato agreed to come with us to Kinshasa for further testing and assuming that their blood did indeed have antibodies to the virus plasmapheresis It was time to head back to Bumba for our rendezvous with the pilots who had agreed to return us to Kinshasa When the plane finally came to pick us up after four days of waiting the pilots refused to load our two convalescents or our samples of virus They had arrived with a load of construction material for a villa that General Bumba was building in a nearby hamlet and they planned to take off with a load of local produce breaking the quarantine embargo Thankfully it seemed there was no logistical problem that Jean-Franois Ruppol could not solve The aircraft finally took off in pouring rain with all of us on board as it lurched and hiccupped perilously across the tree line We made a full report to the International Commission about our preliminary conclusions and our sketch of a hypothetical epidemiological curve (Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever in Zaire Report of an International Commission Bull World Health Org 1978;56:271-293) There was a strong possibility that the epidemic had peaked but there were still at least a dozen people around Yambuku who were critically ill with almost no provision for quarantine so a strong potential for flare-ups or another big wave of infection remained In addition even if we were right about the scope of the epidemic in Yambuku if just a few isolated cases reached Kinshasa or any other major city the epidemic would certainly explode And the logistics situation at Yambuku was extremely dicey Everything had to be brought in by plane and helicopter Karl was ordering radio and laboratory equipment and he began working on plans to install a special medical center at a distance from Yambuku and other significant villages so that patients could be separated from their families It would have to include a highly secure inpatient ward; a highly secure field lab equipped with a centrifuge and other equipment for hematological analysis; a separate quarantine center to isolate suspected cases; and an outpatient ward where serum samples could be obtained and the sick could be brought for diagnosis Naturally the very ill would need to be transported from their villages and that meant a helicopter would have to be available on a daily basis I could see that setting up a treatment center like this was going to take weeks at the earliest Late one night we were drinking Karl’s Kentucky bourbon—it was one of those halfgallon bottles with a handle—discussing what our new virus should be named Pierre argued for Yambuku virus which had the advantage of simplicity; it was what most of us were already calling the disease But Joel reminded us that naming killer viruses after specific places can be very stigmatizing; with Lassa virus discovered in 1969 in a small Nigerian town of that name it had caused no end of problems to the people from the locality Karl Johnson liked to call his viruses after rivers: he felt that took some of the sting out of the geographical finger-pointing It was what he had done when he’d discovered Machupo virus in Bolivia in 1959 and it was clear that night that he had every intention of doing the same in Zaire But we couldn’t call our virus after the majestic Congo River: a Congo-Crim virus already existed Were there any other rivers near Yambuku We charged en masse to a not-very-large map of Zaire that was pinned up in the Fométro corridor At that scale it looked as though the closest river to Yambuku was called Ebola—“Black River” in Lingala It seemed suitably ominous Actually there’s no connection between the hemorrhagic fever and the Ebola River Indeed the Ebola River isn’t even the closest river to the Yambuku mission But in our entirely fatigued state that’s what we ended up calling the virus: Ebola Adapted from No Time to Lose: A Life in Pursuit of Deadly Viruses by Peter Piot Copyright 2012 by Peter Piot With permission of the publisher W W Norton & Company Inc All rights reserved *The Ebola Files: Given the current Ebola outbreak unprecedented in terms of number of people killed and rapid geographic spread Science and Science Translational Medicine have made a collection of research and news articles on the viral disease freely available to researchers and the general publicWritten by Agencies | Chicago | Published: February 9 2010 9:58 am Related News Being an older mother significantly increases the risk of having a child with autismbut being an older father only increases the risk when the mother is under the age of 30US researchers said on Monday They found that a 40-year-old woman’s risk of having a child later diagnosed with autism was 50 percent greater than that of a woman between 25 and 29 But being an older father — 40 or older — only contributes significantly to autism risk when the mother is under 30 “The older the motherthe more the risk that the child will develop autismregardless of whether the father is young or old” said Irva Hertz-Picciotto of the University of California Davis MIND Institutewho worked on the study published in the journal Autism Research The findings contradict a 2006 study of children born in Israel that suggested paternal age played a much larger role “There has been a debate over whether it is maternal or paternal risk A lot of people were thinking it’s not really mom’s age” Hertz-Picciotto said in a telephone interview Researchers and policymakers are increasingly looking for causes to explain the growing numbers of children diagnosed with autismwhich affects 1 percent of US children There is no cure for autisma spectrum of diseases ranging from severe and profound inability to communicate and mental retardation to relatively mild symptoms such as with Asperger’s syndrome The current studywhich incorporates data on 49 million births and 12159 autism cases in Californiahelps to clarify the contribution of age from both parents “We have such a very large database we were really able to disentangle the mother’s age very well” Hertz-Picciotto said This can be a challenge because older mothers and fathers tend to have children together “We found it does vary for the fatherbut not for the mother” she said For exampleamong babies born to mothers under 25children whose father was over 40 were twice as likely to develop autism as those whose father was between 25 and 29 This could be because when both parents are olderthe risk conferred by the father is outweighed by the risk from the motherHertz-Picciotto said OLDER PARENTS She said the point of the study is not to blame parentsbut to gain clues about what is going on in older parents that could increase a child’s risk of developing autism Older parentsfor exampleare more likely to have infertility problems and have used fertility treatments; the mothers are more likely to have autoimmune conditionsincluding gestational diabetes; and both have accumulated more toxins over their lifetimesso the sperm and egg are more likely to have some changes that could increase risk “We see these age findings as clues for where to look next” Hertz-Picciotto said Autism researchers are looking at a broad range of potential environmental factorsincluding household productsmedical treatmentsdietfood supplements and infections And the National Institute of Mental Healthone of the National Institutes of Healthis looking at potential genetic causes of autism and has plans to sequence the entire genomes of hundreds of children and their parents to gain a better understanding of the role genes play For all the latest Lifestyle News download Indian Express App More Related NewsWritten by Agencies | London | Published: August 10 2011 2:12 pm Related News Indian born actress Freida Pinto says that she is always conscious about her appearance before meeting boyfriend Dev Patel The 26-year-old started dating Patel after they met on the sets of ‘Slumdog Millionaire’and they have been maintaining a long distance relationship due to work commitmentsreported Sun online I feel this pressure’Oh my Godhe’s seeing me after two weeksI hope my hair is okay’ Even the most beautiful person looks stupid on Skype?
for the franchise.While Baahubali and Bhallaladeva have enamoured most of the fans the other characters struck a chord with the viewers too Devasena who was the common love interest of both the brothersat one point in the film has charmed her way into many hearts ALSO READ |Baahubali 2: Now you can get a muscular body like Rana Daggubati; fitness coach Kunal Gir spills workoutsecrets Portraying the role with utmost perfection Anushka Shetty not only fought valiantly but left the onlookers entranced by her beauty and poise too So if you want to get the Devasena look for a wedding or function then here are some simple do-it-yourself tipsfrom blogger Akshara Rao you can emulate? *May lord Buddha destroys all sins and obstacles of your life Happy Buddha Jayanti. corporate chieftains — are ostentatious by design.”? ‘Varunastra’ was extensively tested at sea in association with Indian Navy for evaluating the weapon capabilities as per Naval Staff qualitative requirements.’’ he says. An Egyptian friend of mine offered me to move to Toronto to open a bellydance academy. Moreover,” Boman said. and local consumers have a greater willingness to change habits.
For all the latest India News, A senior government official told The Indian Express there was a sense of urgency in the Prime Minister’s Office to finalise the new institution’s design and structure because it has been more than 100 days since the Prime Minister himself made this announcement on August 15. in New Delhi. *** Dhiman Das at his family home. The actor,790.
defence sources said. The victim, Ambika Soni,” said Bhatt.