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The introduction of all legislation has slowed due to government shutdown-related staff furloughs. Medical malpractice reform. Republicans have long viewed limits on monetary damages as necessary to reduce overall health care spending? and concern about the region’s economic outlook, the White House and National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced several pilot projects, Verdict The Smartron t-phone is a decent phone and ticks all the boxes. The overall performance of the phone is good,” senior party leader M Venkaiah Naidu told reporters here.

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Junior surgeons make the incision and open up the chest while the senior surgeons appear only for the crucial part of the procedure in the OTs. The court cautioned it would make such generic provisions inoperative if the government failed to file a comprehensive affidavit and explain its stand within a week. “If we get to know about some case, Smriti Ji has 5 yrs in Govt. 2014 Good point.” he said. Solicitor-General and Additional Solicitors-General (Supreme Court) till further orders,” the bench told senior advocate Indira Jaising who represented the Delhi government. rests only with the Supreme Court. it said.

? Ask most carpenters and they’ll either say 36 in. 32 in or they’ll measure the back of a chair and tell you to lay it out so the chair won’t scar the wall Well I’m sorry to say that unless your ceilings are 16-ft tall 36 in is way too high for the chair rail; and letting the back of the chair set the chair rail height is like letting the size of a rug decide the size of a room In most cases it just doesn’t work Chairs and chair rail may sound like they have a lot in common but the relationship is limited to their approximate heights Chair rail is the most misused and abused molding in new houses today But it is also the easiest molding to install correctly and one that can do the most to make a house feel like a home Yeah but… What You want to argue the point You still think chair rail should always sit at 36 in from the floor Sorry there is no standard height dimension In fact historically chair rail started out very low Even in colonial rooms with 10-ft ceilings I’ve seen chair rail set at 30 in from the floor There are some 18th-century pattern books that show the chair rail at 24 in off the floor In fact in rooms with 9-ft to 10-ft ceilings this height is actually most appropriate for chair rail and best falls within the rules of classical architecture (see photo right) Over the past 60 years we have forgotten a lot about those classical rules and we’ve forgotten how chair rail functions in a room A matter of scale… Let’s back up a bit Chair rail is a molding right The purpose of molding is to establish proper scale and proportion in a room And because of its close proximity to us (chair rail is often the nearest horizontal molding we see) chair rail can do more to make a room feel right than either the baseboard or the crown But get the chair rail wrong and the room feels wrong-I can guarantee it Here’s where proper proportion comes into play All of the classic architectural orders-the Tuscan the Doric the Ionic the Corinthian and the Composite-have strict rules of proportion These rules of proportion were specified back in the first century BCE by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio a Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius used “modules” to ensure proper proportion He started with the spacing of the columns on a Greek temple using that distance as a “module” According to his instructions for achieving symmetry harmony and proportion the base of a Doric column should be two modules and the height should be fourteen modules That boils down to a proportional relationship of 1:7 – a column that is seven times as tall as it is wide Put simply if the base of the column is 10 in wide it should be about 70 in tall Of course not all columns follow that same proportional rule How does all that relate to chair rail Ironically the rules of classical architecture are really based on human scale on the male body and I’m the perfect classical specimen: My foot measures 11-in long and I am 77-in tall; a 1:7 ratio Wow (I pity you poor short carpenters with big feet!) The moldings in a room are supposed to relate to our bodies too That is why you can walk into an old building and it just “feels” right The reason it feels right is because it is symmetrical and harmonious to our own size (See Fig 1 below)We innately relate to and enjoy a space we fit into and fit well with Dig a little deeper and we find proportional rules for every architectural detail Despite its name chair rail actually corresponds to the molding at the top of a column’s pedestal According to Abraham Swan the Doric order didn’t even have a base because Vitruvius said: “This order is like a strong and robust man such as Hercules who was never represented but with his feet bare” Yet many later architects have included pedestals For instance when using a pedestal Asher Benjamin divides the entire height of the Doric order into 80 parts The diameter of the column equals six parts According to Benjamin the pedestal should be “two diameters and thirty minutes high” Fig 1 What’s all this mean to a carpenter Here’s how I look at it: Take a room with a 10-ft ceiling which is 120 in Divide 120 in by 80 parts Each part would equal 1 1/2 in Therefore the column should be 9 in to 10 in in diameter (six parts) Multiply the column width by 2 1/2 to determine the height of the pedestal: 22 1/2 in tall Benjamin also suggests that the pedestal should be 15 parts high Either way the result is the same Obviously unless chairs were much shorter back then the height of a chair has nothing to do with the height of the chair rail Wait a minute Don’t leave the room yet I’m not finished We’re just getting started Now we need to find out the exact size of each molding from the plinth or baseboard to the chair rail Benjamin doesn’t provide that detail but William Pain does in his 1778 book The Practical House Carpenter Until the 1920s and 1930s pattern books like Pain’s were used by carpenters and architects to duplicate classical details-and that means all molding profiles and proportions But pattern books seemed to go by the wayside as minimalism and modern styles reduced the importance of moldings and finally production trumped design It’s no wonder that we so often hear from carpenters with questions about molding profiles placement and proportion None of us were trained on the use of pattern books And very few of the architects we work with are familiar with them But that doesn’t mean we all can’t learn According to Pain for a Doric pedestal we start by dividing the height of the column into thirteen equal parts where one part equals the diameter of the column The height of the pedestal is set at 2 diameters and forty minutes or 266 parts For a room with a 10 foot ceiling one part would equal 9 1/4 in Forty minutes would equal about 6 3/16 in That puts the pedestal about 24 11/16 in from the floor Let’s make it simple and add 1/16 in Trust me No one will notice Going back to William Pain’s book we next divide the diameter of the column into 12 parts (9 1/4 in ÷ 12 = 3/4 in) Pain then instructs us to divide one of those parts into 5-so 3/4 in ÷ 5 = 1/8 in (Well not exactly but it’s close enough for our purposes Besides that gives us a nice easy number to work with) Now let’s look at the three moldings that make up a traditional chair rail and the sizes that Pain recommends for each one The cavetto or cove molding at the bottom should be 4 parts which makes it 1/2 in,s first run-in with crime.

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