Sept 7, 2006 (CIDRAP News) – In a human trial in China, a whole-virus H5N1 avian influenza vaccine generated an immune response with a relatively low dose of antigen, suggesting that it could be used to immunize more people than may be possible with some other vaccines under development.The study, published online today in The Lancet, showed an adequate immune response in 78% of volunteers after two 10-microgram (mcg) doses of the vaccine plus an aluminum hydroxide (alum) adjuvant. That exceeds the European Union’s requirement of an acceptable response (a hemagglutinin-inhibition titer of 40 or more) in 70% of volunteers.The vaccine is made by Sinovac Biotech in Beijing, China, from an inactivated strain of H5N1 known as Vietnam/1194/2004. The report says that Sinovac was involved in designing and monitoring the study but played no role in collecting the data or writing the report.The randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study involved 120 adults (aged 18 to 60). They were divided into five groups of 24, with each group receiving either a placebo or 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 mcg of the vaccine.Each volunteer received the vaccine on the first day of the study and 28 days later. Serum samples were assessed for evidence of an immune response on days 0, 14, 28, 42, and 56.An antibody response was seen after the first injection at all dose levels. The highest response (78% seropositivity) was seen in the 10-mcg group after two doses.The investigators reported that all four doses were well tolerated, even though whole-virion vaccines are generally thought to cause more reactions than split-virion vaccines. No serious reactions were reported, and most local and systemic reactions were mild and brief. Three people dropped out of the study, and one person was excluded from the final analysis.The authors concluded that the dose required to reach an acceptable immune response was much lower than for vaccines reported in previous studies. Two reports published earlier this year described trials of a split-virus H5N1 vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur. The reports said two 90-mcg doses of nonadjuvanted vaccine or two 30-mcg doses of adjuvanted vaccine were required to produce the desired immune response.(In July, GlaxoSmithKline reported a good immune response in 80% of volunteers who received a dose of only 3.8 mcg of the company’s adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine. However, a full report of those findings has not yet been published.)”The manufacturing capacity for an H5N1 vaccine would increase if a whole-virion vaccine is used, because 20% to 30% of vaccine antigen is expected to be lost during the disruption process in the preparation of split-virion vaccines, according to our experience with seasonal influenza vaccine,” the Chinese researchers write.In an accompanying commentary, Iain Stephenson, MD, of the Infectious Diseases Unit at Leicester Royal Infirmary in Leicester, England, writes that the findings point up of “a potential dose-sparing approach that could be crucial for a global supply of pandemic vaccine.”He says that trial results for split-virion H5N1 vaccines have been disappointing, because within current manufacturing constraints, the two such vaccines under development would yield only enough to vaccinate 75 million to 225 million people.Though whole-virion vaccines generally produce a better immune response than split or subunit vaccines, development of whole-virion H5N1 vaccines has been delayed, Stephenson writes. He says it is difficult for manufacturers that produce split seasonal vaccines to switch production approaches and processing methods.Stephenson cautions that whole-virion vaccines have been associated with febrile reactions in children and emphasizes that careful investigation is needed before such vaccines can be widely used.It remains to be seen whether whole-virion vaccines can induce the broad cross-reactive response that would be needed to treat a variety of H5N1 viruses, Stephenson writes.Lin J, Zhang J, Dong X, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated adjuvanted whole-virion influenza A (H5N1) vaccine: a phase 1 randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006 (early online publication, Sep 7) [Abstract (registration required)]Stephenson I. H5N1 vaccines: how prepared are we for a pandemic? (Commentary). Lancet 2006 (early online publication, Sep 7)See also:May 12 CIDRAP News story “Sanofi reports results for H5N1 vaccine with adjuvant”Jul 26 CIDRAP News story “Glaxo says its H5N1 vaccine works at low dose”
AFP Sport looks at three major calls Lampard must get right if Chelsea are to take a step towards the quarter-finals:Keep faith with Giroud?Having spent much of the season in exile, Olivier Giroud was back with a bang as he scored the opening goal against Tottenham on Saturday in his first Premier League start since November.The France striker had been reduced to fringe status by Lampard’s decision to give talented youngster Tammy Abraham his opportunity, but an injury to the England international and the ineffective form of Michy Batshuayi gave Giroud a second chance.He made the most of it with a lethal first half finish in the vital 2-1 win over Tottenham, producing a combative performance that might have given Lampard food for thought.Giroud’s second club goal of the season and his first in the Premier League since April underlined the threat posed by the 33-year-old’s physical style and clever movement.Now Lampard must decide if Giroud, whose lack of match action meant he could only last 70 minutes against Tottenham, is capable of repeating that display against Bayern.Chelsea, who have struggled to find a cutting edge for much of the season in home games, certainly looked more dynamic with Giroud leading the line en route to their first win in five league matches.And in the back of his mind, Lampard will know Abraham, who came off the bench to replace Giroud, might be running out of steam with only one goal in 2020 and has just two in his last 10 games.Retain defensive system?Marcos Alonso enjoyed Chelsea’s switch to a five-man defence against Tottenham Chelsea manager Frank Lampard faces some big decisions ahead of Bayern Munich’s visit to Stamford Bridge in the Champions League last 16 first leg on Tuesday.Advertisement Loading… Promoted Content7 Reasons Why You Might Want To Become A VegetarianTop 10 Female Stars Everyone Had A Crush On In The 90s11 Most Immersive Game To Play On Your Table TopStunning Wedding Looks From Around The World5 Of The World’s Most Unique Theme Parks12 Celebrities Who Almost Ruined Their Careers With One Movie8 Things That Will Happen If An Asteroid Hits Earth10 Actors And Actresses Whose Careers Were Boosted By Soap OperasThe Network’s Greatest Shows On HBOBest Car Manufacturers In The World10 Risky Jobs Some Women DoA Hurricane Can Be As Powerful As 10 Atomic Bombs Read Also: EPL: Chelsea subdue Tottenham 2-1, as Giroud, Alonso seal Blues winHe did just that with the assist for Alonso’s goal by moving into a central position that took him away from any potential markers.With Brazilian winger Willian rested after being used as substitute against Tottenham, Lampard will have to decide whether Barkley, who has raised eyebrows with some off-field antics since joining Chelsea, can be trusted to repeat that kind of mature show against Bayern.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 Jose Mourinho’s cheeky pre-match claim that Lampard would return to the five-man defence he had employed against Tottenham earlier this season proved correct on Saturday.Now the Chelsea boss must be tempted to deploy the same system against Bayern.Despite his knowledge that Lampard would use Cesar Azpilicueta, Andreas Christensen and Antonio Rudiger as his centre-backs, with Reece James and Marcos Alonso bombing forward as wing-backs, Mourinho had no answer to the effective formation.The tactics gave Chelsea a more solid look at the back and freed James and Alonso to join the attack, allowing them to overload their opponents in wide areas, a scheme perfectly illustrated when the ball was worked from right to left for Alonso to fire home from 20 yards.It was the Spanish left-back’s first start since December after he spending much of the season behind Emerson and even Azpilicueta, usually a right-back or centre-back, in Lampard’s pecking order.Lampard has twice out-witted Mourinho with the formation this season and, given Chelsea have often looked creaky at the back this season, it would be no surprise if he relied on that security blanket again to subdue the German champions.Let Barkley run wild?Chelsea midfielder Ross Barkley was influential against Tottenham Like Giroud and Alonso, Ross Barkley had endured a frustrating campaign that suddenly offers hope of a rewarding finale after his influential display against Tottenham.Liverpool-born Barkley has never looked comfortable among Chelsea’s cosmopolitan squad since arriving from Everton in January 2018 and a series of diffident performances had raised questions about the midfielder’s long-term future with the club.The promise shown by Barkley as a youngster at Everton seemed a lifetime ago as he laboured to make an impact in west London, but Lampard might have found a way to unlock his potential at last.Using the 26-year-old on the left side of Chelsea’s attack on Saturday unchained Barkley from any defensive responsibility, giving him freedom to roam and take up positions that could hurt Tottenham.
Lewis Hamilton’s on pole for this afternoon’s Spanish Formula One Grand Prix.The three-time world champion was fastest in qualifying and also first in both practice sessions in Barcelona.Hamilton’s ahead of Ferrari’s championship leader Sebastian Vettel and Mercedes teammate Valtteri Bottas.
Cameroon moved top of Group M after securing a 2-2 draw against South Africa in their 2017 African Nations Cup qualifying clash on Saturday.South Africa had taken the lead through Tokelo Rantie, only for Sebastien Siani to level for the hosts just before the break.And Cameroon recovered from a losing position again in the second half after Kekana Hlompo had fired the visitors back into the lead — scoring a screamer from inside his own half — with Nicolas N’Koulou then grabbing a 67th-minute equaliser.The draw sees Cameroon edge ahead of Mauritania by one point to the top of the standings, with South Africa moving off the bottom of the group into third place, leapfrogging Gambia.Columbus Crew SC midfielder Tony Tchani made his Cameroon debut, cap-tying him to the nation of his birth after he played in a friendly for the United States in January.Senegal stayed perfect in Group K with a 2-0 win over Niger, Mohamed Diame and Baye Oumar Niasse scoring in either half. Earlier, Namibia picked up their first points in Group K following their 3-1 victory over Burundi.Benson Shilongo, Peter Shalulile and Hendrik Somaeb all struck for Namibia, with Fiston Abdul Razak offering up Burundi’s only reply.Youssef El Arabi’s first-half penalty was enough to give Morocco a 1-0 win at Cape Verde as the visitors took a three-point lead over their opponents in Group F.DR Congo moved ahead of Angola into top spot in Group B after sweeping them aside with a 2-1 win. Cedric Bakambu opened the scoring from the penalty spot for DR Congo inside 20 minutes, with Elia Meschak then doubling their lead in the 77th minute.Fredy pulled one back for Angola deep into injury time but his side were unable to find an equaliser.Burkina Faso used Jonathan Pitroipa’s 60th-minute penalty to defeat Uganda 1-0 and move level with their opponents atop Group D.Mauritius moved clear of Rwanda into second in Group H after beating them 1-0.Francis Rasolofonirina scored the only goal of the game for Mauritius in the 59th minute. Seychelles saw off Lesotho 2-0 with goals in each half to draw level on points with their Group J opponents.Gervais Trevor Waye-Hive set Seychelles on their way, before Dine Dine Suzette later made sure of the result. –Follow Joy Sports on Twitter: @JoySportsGH. Our hashtag is #JoySports
Amid uncertainty over state funding, the Anchorage School District is preparing to lay off hundreds of teachers.Listen nowTodd Hess, ASD’s chief human resources officer, said 200 non-tenured teachers will be notified by the end of the school year.“With the uncertainty that the school district is facing with funding, we have to be prepared to meet our financial obligations,” Hess said.The Anchorage School Board has already eliminated more than 90 teaching positions, which the district was able to absorb through attrition.Hess said ASD is still figuring out which non-tenured teachers might be laid off. That determination involves a variety of factors, including the subjects they teach, their qualifications and certifications, as well as their time with the district.“You may be teaching social studies this year, but you may also be qualified in mathematics, and so then do we have any positions in mathematics? Oh, and perhaps you’re also qualified in English, then do we have any positions in English?” Hess said. “So it’s a lot of pieces.”ASD has issued pink slips in prior years, because it has to have its budget finalized before the state legislature decides how much money it will give to school districts across the state.Hess said the non-tenured teachers to receive layoff notices will be mostly first-year teachers with the district, and some second-year instructors as well.And for the first time in several years, Hess said five tenured teachers might be laid off.While the district will issue more than 200 pink slips, a number of those could be recalled before next school year, depending on state education funding.“We will do what we can to make any layoff status as short as possible and get people back, because of the disruption that it causes in every neighborhood school,” Hess said.Cuts and layoffs are affecting more than just teachers, however. Hess said other departments face reductions as well, though specifics were not immediately available.